Bhutan can be divided into three zones, the southern foothills, which is situated in Subtropical Zone (150m to 2000m) with Tropical or Subtropical vegetation. The Alpine Zone (4000m and above) with no forest cover; the Temperate Zone (2000 to 4000m) with conifer or broadleaf forests and the Subtropical Zone (150m to 2000m) with Tropical or Subtropical vegetation. Around 70 percent forest coverage and wide range of altitude and climate, Bhutan has rich and diverse flora and fauna.
Around 60 percent of the common plant species of the Eastern Himalayas are found in Bhutan. Some types of forest found in Bhutan are like Fir Forests, Mixed Conifer Forest, Blue Pine Forest, Chirpine Forest, Broadleaf mixed with Conifer, Upland Hardwood Forest, Lowland Hardwood Forest, Tropical Lowland Forests, bluepine forest, broadleaf mixed with conifers, tropical lowland forests and upland hardwood forest. Wide range of animal could also be found in Bhutan. Some high altitude species are the snow leopards, the Bengal tigers that are found at altitude ranging 3000 to 4000 meters, the red panda, the gorals and the langurs, the Himalayan black bear and sambars, the wild pigs and the barking deer, the musk deer and the blue sheep. In the tropical forests of Southern Bhutan one can come across the clouded leopards, the one horned rhinoceros, elephants, golden langur that is unique to Bhutan, the swamp deer and the water buffaloes. Bhutan has over 400 plus resident bird species. The birds migrate to the higher and lower altitude depending on the weather condition. There are 50 winter migrant birds. These include ducks, waders, birds of prey, thrushes, finches and buntings. Birds like cuckoos, swifts, bee-eaters, warblers, flycatchers and drongos are some of the 40 species of summer visitors or partial migrant to Bhutan.
Around 16 species found in Bhutan are internationally vulnerable birds. They are Pallas’s Fish Eagle, White Bellied Heron, Satyr Tragopan, Grey Bellied Tragopan, Ward’s Trogaon, Blyth’s King Fisher, Rumped Honey Guide, Purple Cochoa, Rufous Throated Wren Babbler, Red Headed Parrot Bill, Chestnut Breasted Partridge, Blyth’s Trogon, Wood Snipe, the Beautiful Nuthatch All Of Which Breed In Bhutan, Dark Rumped Swift,Rufous Necked Hornbill and Grey Crowned Prinia. We find places like Phobjikha valley in Wangdue Phodrang and Bomdeling in Trashi Yangtse are also two important places in Bhutan that is visited by the endangered Black Necked Crane.
Henceforth its one of the ten global hotspots. Bhutan is all set to preserve and protect the rich environment through environmental organizations.
These are some of the proactive organizations are:
- National Environmental Commission.
- Royal society for protection of nature clubs throughout the country.
- Department of Forestry Services.
- Nature Conservation Department.
- Bhutan Trust Fund.
- Donor Organization.
- Association of Bhutan Tour Operators.